Facebook Twitter Google+LinkedInPinterestWhatsAppProvidenciales, 23 Feb 2016 – The Premier and PNP Party Leader, Hon Rufus Ewing says elections can happen as late as February 2017, but members of his party seem to have shifted to high gear now that the National Convention is over. Magnetic Media is learning of a serious showdown within the Wheeland Branch of the Progressive National Party to decide the nominee and potential candidate for that electoral district. The branch challenge, we understand is between JJ Parker, Dameko Dean, Elery Lightbourne and Alpheus Pinder. While it is also rumored that Dean may challenge the Blue Hills seat, he has already been massaging the Wheeland voters, which number 558 according to the current register with holiday greeting cards. The branch congress will decide who they like for their district nominee. Wheeland, which had the second highest voter turn-out in 2012 and Blue Hills, which has seen nearly 100 more voters registered in 2016 are both seats held by the Opposition PDM. There are two others who have revealed their interest to run on the PNP Ticket in the General Elections, namely Sheba Wilson who wants to offer as an at large candidate and Michael Misick who wants to offer for North and Middle Caicos. In a media statement issued last night, the former premier said, I quote him now: “We have seen the injustice, the erosion of longstanding democratic freedoms and the ongoing efforts to diminish the political will and voice of our people. I believe that I still have a part to play in the struggle to liberate our people.”Misick is not as focused on the PDM or PDA as he is on what he believes is an imposing British presence in government. Facebook Twitter Google+LinkedInPinterestWhatsApp Related Items:Alpheus Pinder, Dameko Dean, Elery Lightbourne, JJ Parker, pnp, wheeland Recommended for you TCI Country Leaders condemn vicious memes Olive branch extended by Opposition Leader, says it is time for Turks and Caicos leaders to unite Opposition Leader responds to Throne Speech 11 days later; says PDM Govt plan puts TCI in ‘deep doo doo’
WILMINGTON, MA — Here are several opportunities to catch live music in Wilmington this week:Larry GilbertTuesday, December 18, 6pmThursday, December 20, 6pmRocco’s Restaurant & Bar193 Main Street, WilmingtonPianist Ricky LauriaThursday, December 20, 8pmTremezzo2 Lowell Street, WilmingtonKaraoke with Winnell EntertainmentFriday, December 21, 8pmPacific Grove211 Lowell Street, WilmingtonNOTE: Know of any other musical performances happening in town this week or in the coming weeks? Let me know at firstname.lastname@example.org.Like Wilmington Apple on Facebook. Follow Wilmington Apple on Twitter. Follow Wilmington Apple on Instagram. Subscribe to Wilmington Apple’s daily email newsletter HERE. Got a comment, question, photo, press release, or news tip? Email email@example.com.Thank You To Our Sponsor:Share this:TwitterFacebookLike this:Like Loading… RelatedLIVE MUSIC in Wilmington (Week of May 27, 2018)In “Business”LIVE MUSIC in Wilmington (Week of March 25, 2018)In “Business”LIVE MUSIC in Wilmington (Week of December 24, 2017)In “Community”
Read the Rylo camera preview See It See it $60 at Best Buy I thought this might be a mistake, but, no, the weirdly named HP Laptop 15t Value is indeed quite the value at this price. Specs include an Intel Core i7 processor, 12GB of RAM, a 256GB solid-state drive and a 15.6-inch display. However, I strongly recommend paying an extra $50 to upgrade that display to FHD (1,920×1,080), because you’re not likely to be happy with the native 1,366×768 resolution. CNET may get a commission from retail offers. $155 at Google Express HP Laptop 15t Value: $520 (save $780) Angela Lang/CNET DJI’s answer to GoPro’s action cameras is rugged little model that’s shockproof, dustproof and waterproof down to 11 meters. It normally runs $350, but this deal drops it to $261 when you apply promo code 19LABOR10 at checkout. 0 Sarah Tew/CNET An Echo Dot makes a fine match for any Fire edition TV, because you can use the latter to say things like, “Alexa, turn on the TV.” Right now, the 24-inch Insignia Fire TV Edition starts at just $100, while the 32-inch Toshiba Fire TV Editions is on sale for $130. Just add any Fire TV Edition to your cart, then add a third-gen Echo Dot, and presto: The latter is free. What’s cooler: A snapshot of a firework exploding in front of you, or full 360-degree video of all the fireworks and all the reactions to seeing them? Oooh, ahhh, indeed. At $250, the compact Rylo dual-lens camera is selling for its lowest price yet. And for an extra $50, you can get the bundle that includes the waterproof housing.This deal runs through Sept. 3; it usually costs $500. Apple AirPods with Wireless Charging Case: $155 (save $45) Sarah Tew/CNET $999 Comments Review • iPhone XS review, updated: A few luxury upgrades over the XR $6 at Tidal TVs Speakers Mobile Accessories Cameras Laptops Automobiles Smart Speakers & Displays $261 at Daily Steals via Google Express See at Turo See It $59 at eBay Turo $90 at Daily Steals via Google Express Google Nest Hub: $59 (save $70) Lenovo Smart Clock: $59.99 (save $20) $520 at HP $999 Read Google Home Hub review $999 JBL Soundgear wearable speaker: $90 (save $160) Post a comment Free Echo Dot with an Insignia or Toshiba TV (save $50) Sarah Tew/CNET Rylo Chris Monroe/CNET Tags Recently updated to include digital-photo-frame capabilities, the Lenovo Smart Clock brings Google Assistant goodness to your nightstand. It’s a little smaller than the Amazon Echo Show 5, but also a full $30 less (and tied with Prime Day pricing) during this Best Buy Labor Day sale. Mentioned Above Apple iPhone XS (64GB, space gray) Share your voice Best Buy Rylo 5.8K 360 Video Camera: $250 (save $250) Sprint Lenovo 130-15AST 15.6-inch laptop: $210 (save $90) $299 at Amazon See It Sarah Tew/CNET The problem with most entry-level laptops: They come with mechanical hard drives. That makes for a mighty slow Windows experience. This Lenovo model features a 128GB solid-state drive, so it should be pretty quick to boot and load software, even with its basic processor. Plus, it has a DVD-burner! That’s not something you see in many modern laptops, especially at this price. Formerly known as the Google Home Hub, Google’s Nest Hub packs a wealth of Google Assistant goodness into a 7-inch screen. At $59, this is within a buck of the best price we’ve seen. It lists for $129 and sells elsewhere in the $89-to-$99 range.This is one item of many available as part of eBay’s Labor Day Sale (which, at this writing, doesn’t specifically mention Labor Day, but that’s how it was pitched to us). Though not technically a Labor Day sale, it’s happening during Labor Day sale season — and it’s too good not to share. Nationwide Distributors, via Google Express, has just about the best AirPods deal we’ve seen (when you apply promo code ZBEDWZ at checkout). This is for the second-gen AirPods with the wireless charging case. Can’t imagine these will last long at this price, so if you’re interested, act fast. Other Labor Day sales you should check out Best Buy: In addition to some pretty solid MacBook deals that have been running for about a week already, Best Buy is offering up to 40% off major appliances like washers, dryers and stoves. There are also gift cards available with the purchase of select appliances. See it at Best BuyDell: Through Aug. 28, Dell is offering an extra 12% off various laptops, desktops and electronics. And check back starting Aug. 29 for a big batch of Labor Day doorbusters. See it at DellGlassesUSA: Aug. 29 – Sept. 3 only, you can save 65% on all frames with promo code labor65. See it at GlassesUSALenovo: The tech company is offering a large assortment of deals and doorbusters through Labor Day, with the promise of up to 56% off certain items — including, at this writing, the IdeaPad 730S laptop for $700 (save $300).See it at LenovoLensabl: Want to keep the frames you already love and paid for? Lensabl lets you mail them in for new lenses, based on your prescription. From now through Sept. 2 only, you can save 20% on the blue light-blocking lens option with promo code BLOCKBLUE. See it at LensablSears: Between now and Sept. 7, you can save up to 40% on appliances (plus an additional 10% if you shop online), up to 60% on mattresses, up to 50% on Craftsman products and more. The store is also offering some fairly hefty cashback bonuses. See it at SearsNote: This post was published previously and is continuously updated with new information.CNET’s Cheapskate scours the web for great deals on tech products and much more. For the latest deals and updates, follow the Cheapskate on Facebook and Twitter. Questions about the Cheapskate blog? Find the answers on our FAQ page, and find more great buys on the CNET Deals page. Tidal 3-month family subscription: $5.99 (save $54) Amazon expanded its fleet to 50 aircraft. Digital First Media/Orange Count More people are using Amazon Prime than ever. The online retail giant surpassed 100 million Prime subscribers earlier this year, and Cyber Monday 2018 was the site’s biggest shopping day yet. So how will Amazon keep up with this demand? Apparently by buying more airplanes.On Friday, Amazon announced that it was expanding its fleet to 50 aircraft (up from 40). Amazon says this is to support the increasing number of Prime subscribers who expect free two-day delivery. (On top of that, Amazon customers bought 2 billion items with one-day delivery this year.)By adding 10 more aircraft, Amazon is expanding its fleet by 25 percent — a sizable increase. But this fleet is still dwarfed by other shipping companies. UPS owns 247 aircraft (and leases more during November and December), while FedEx owns over 650 (ranking it among the world’s largest airlines).If Amazon is to continue offering free-two day shipping to its millions of Prime subscribers, it better have the arsenal to back it up. Boost Mobile Read DJI Osmo Action preview See at Amazon Use promo code 19LABOR10 to get an unusually good deal on JBL’s interesting hybrid product — not quite headphones, and not quite a traditional speaker, but something you wear like neckphones to listen to music on the go. Read Lenovo Smart Clock review Turo is kind of like Uber meets Airbnb: You borrow someone’s car, but you do all the driving. I’ve used it many times and found it a great alternative to traditional car-rental services — in part because you get to choose exactly the vehicle you want (not just, say, “midsize”) and in part because you can often do pickup and dropoff right outside baggage claim.Between now and Sept. 1, the first 300 people to check out can get $30 off any Turo rental with promo code LDW30. Turo: Save $30 on any car rental Apple iPhone XS Preview • iPhone XS is the new $1,000 iPhone X $210 at Best Buy Best laptops for college students: We’ve got an affordable laptop for every student. Best live TV streaming services: Ditch your cable company but keep the live channels and DVR. Internet Tech Industry The Cheapskate $999 Amazon Prime Amazon,I’m shocked — shocked! — to learn that stores are turning Labor Day into an excuse to sell stuff. Wait — no, I’m not. As much as I respect the original intent of the holiday (which became official back in 1894), to most of us, it’s just a bonus day off — one that’s blissfully tacked onto a weekend. So, yeah, stores; go ahead, run your sales. I’m listening. Perhaps unsurprisingly, Labor Day doesn’t bring out bargains to compete with the likes of Black Friday (which will be here before you know it), but there are definitely some sales worth your time.For example:We’ve rounded up the best Labor Day mattress deals.We’ve also gathered the best Labor Day laptop deals at Best Buy.The 2019 Vizio P Series Quantum is back under $999.Be sure to check out Amazon’s roughly three dozen Labor Day deals on TVs and audio. Google Express is having a big sale as well, one that includes deals on game consoles, AirPods, iPhones, laptops and more.Below I’ve rounded up a handful of individual items I consider to be the cream of the crop, followed by a handy reference guide to other Labor Day sales. Keep in mind, of course, that products may sell out at any time, even if the sale itself is still running. Note that CNET may get a share of revenue from the sale of the products featured on this page. Share your voice Spotify and most other streaming services rely on compressed audio, which robs the listener of full fidelity. Enter Tidal, the only “major” service that delivers lossless audio — meaning at least on par with CD quality, if not better. Want to see (er, hear) the difference for yourself? Grab this excellent extended trial while you can. It’s just $6 for three months, and it’s good for up to six listeners. Read the AirPods review Tags 7 DJI Osmo Action camera: $261 (save $89) Amazon
On the eve of India’s Independence Day, Google is launching a $2 million worth challenge in India for non-profit organisations to share ideas on how they would use technology innovatively to improve the lives of people.”We’re celebrating the spirit of creativity and entrepreneurship of the world’s largest democracy by spotlighting the best local nonprofits that are using technology to make the world better,” Senior VP and Chief Business Officer at Google, Nikesh Arora, said in a blog post.At the end of the challenge, four nonprofits will each receive a ₹3 crore (around $500,000) Global Impact Award and technical assistance from Google to bring their projects to life.The ‘Google Impact Challenge in India’ has invited registered Indian social entrepreneurs to share how they would use technology to enhance people’s lives. They can apply online until 5 September.Google users from all over the world will review and vote for the top 10 projects by 21 October. They can cast a vote for a ‘Fan Favourite’ tech project by a social entrepreneur.”On October 31, I’ll join Ram Shriram, Jacquelline Fuller, Anu Aga and Jayant Sinha in Delhi to hear the 10 finalists pitch live. As judges, we’ll select three awardees based on their potential impact, scalability and ingenuity. We’ll also announce the winner of the Fan Favorite, according to your vote,” Arora said.This is not the first time Google is extending a philanthropic hand towards NGOs. The charitable arm of the Cali-based company, Google.org, has pledged to share one percent of their annual profits with NGOs.In 2010, Google gave more than $145 million to non-profit and academic institutions.At times, Google expects their projects may fail. “That’s normal. We should expect that some of them will fail or will only have smaller impact. If you’re not failing some of the time, you’re not taking risks. As we progress, some of our failures will hopefully teach us as much as some of our successes,” Senior Vice President (Operations) Urs Hölzle had said in a blog post in 2011.Google has faced criticism for technology initiatives like the ‘Google Impact Challenge’. Recently Microsoft founder Bill Gates lashed at the company for its Project Loon, which promises internet connectivity in developing countries.”When you’re dying of malaria, I suppose you’ll look up and see that balloon, and I’m not sure how it’ll help you. When a kid gets diarrhea, no, there’s no website that relieves that,” Gates told Business Week in an interview.
Bangalore, Jan 18 (ANI): India’s third-largest Information technology (IT) services exporter, Wipro Limited, registered a 27 percent rise in quarterly net profit, topping estimates, bolstered by rising demand from overseas clients. Wipro chief executive officer, TK Kurien, aimed for a constant growth rate of four and four and half percent.
News Share This! Tagschurch membership church membership decline Gallup homepage featured nones,You may also like Facebook Twitter Pinterest LinkedIn ReddIt Email,(RNS) — Most Americans still say they believe in God, but their involvement in organized religion continues to wane.A new Gallup report found that only half of Americans say they belong to a church or other religious body, down from 69% two decades earlier.Most of the decline is tied to the rise of the so-called “nones” — those who claim no religious affiliation. Gallup found that the share of Americans who claim a religious identity declined from 90% to 77% in recent decades.But even those who claim a faith tradition may not belong to a religious congregation or community, according to the report, which compared data from 1998-2000 to data from 2016-2018.At the turn of the century, Gallup said, 73% of religious Americans belonged to a house of worship. That’s dropped to 64% today.“The still-sizable proportion of religious Americans also contribute to declining church membership, as fewer in this group belong to a church than did so two decades ago,” the report states.Being part of a house of worship is no longer necessary for a growing number of religious Americans, said Tim Carney, author of “Alienated America.”“This data confirms what we’ve been seeing for decades: American life is becoming deinstitutionalized,” Carney said. “Americans are less likely to belong to anything. In America, historically, the thing most people have belonged to has been the church, and now more and more people are losing that.”Age and generational differences appear to play a role in whether Americans join a house of worship.“Just 42 percent of millennials are members of churches, on average,” according to the report. “By comparison, 20 years ago, 62 percent of members of Generation X belonged to a church, when they were about the same age as millennials are today.”The poll found that 68% of “traditionalists” — which Gallup identifies as those born before 1945 — are part of a church or other religious body. That percentage has declined from 78% two decades ago.Gallup’s study also found that 89% of traditionalists have a religious identity, compared with 68% of millennials, which it defines as those born between 1980 and 2000.“Not only are millennials less likely than older Americans to identify with a religion, but millennials who are religious are significantly less likely to belong to a church,” according to the report. “Fifty-seven percent of religious millennials belong to a church, compared with 65 percent or more in older generations.”Among other findings:Catholics (63%) are less likely to belong to a church than Protestants (67%).Nondenominational Christians (57%) are less likely to belong to a church than those tied to a specific denomination (70%).Mormons have among the highest affiliation with a church, at about 90%.Jewish membership in synagogues has remained steady at about 50%.Gallup’s new numbers are striking because they suggest a even lower level in religiosity than other recent data on religious affiliation.Last year’s General Social Survey, a poll conducted since 1972 by the National Opinion Research Center at the University of Chicago, found that those who reported that they affiliate with “no religion” and those that self-identify as evangelicals are the same size — about 23%.The difference is one of wording, explained Ryan Burge, a pastor and political science researcher. While the GSS looked at affiliation, which can be more cultural, Gallup asked about membership, which might suggest a more formal connection with a specific religious body.“A lot of people say they’re Catholic, for example, but they never go to Mass,” Burge said. “Or they went to college, moved away, and don’t attend a church in their new town. So if you ask if they’re a member of the Catholic Church, they’re more likely to say they’re not because they don’t actively attend.”Burge said the gap between the population that claims a religious affiliation and population that claims church membership shows that America is still “marginally attached” to civic religion.“The vast majority of us think we should believe in something, that we should have some religious affiliation,” he said. “They’re not afraid of the label of religion, they’re just reluctant to engage in the activity. That ties into the larger problem in America where people aren’t joining stuff as much as they used to.”That lines up with an overall lack of interest in belonging, according to Harvard University political scientist Robert Putnam, whose 2000 book, “Bowling Alone: The Collapse and Revival of American Community,” argued that Americans have been engaging less and less in communal social activities – bowling leagues, Rotary clubs, Boy Scouts, gardening clubs, book clubs and more — since the 1960s.Church attendance, Putnam told Religion News Service, has simply followed this downward trend.In fact, the data on the decline in church membership shares “almost exactly the same pattern of ups and downs” as engagement in secular civil society, he said.While the acceleration of the trend may partially be rooted in the increased politicization of religion, Putnam said, it’s likely much less about religion and spirituality and much more about a general disengagement with organized social activities.That gap has only partially been filled by the rise of online forms of community, researchers say, which has consequences not only for faith groups but for society at large.“This is not a good trend, even from a secular perspective,” Carney said. “People who attend church have more connections, more friends, more support in tough times, and more of a sense of purpose. Families that attend church are stronger. And among the working class, the data suggest that people who drop out of church aren’t joining anything else in its place.”Putnam, though, cautioned against focusing on just the rearview mirror.“Just because a trend is going in a direction, doesn’t mean it can’t reverse course,” Putnam said. “I actually think it’s possible that the millennials will lead a renewal of civil society. There’s a decent chance we’re on the verge of a major change in American society.”And religion, he said, could very well be a part of that.The Gallup study was based on telephone interviews of American adults from all 50 states and the District of Columbia. Trend data on membership came from surveys of 2,000 adults. The margin of error is plus or minus 3 percentage points.Results for 2016-2018 are based on interviews with 7,688 Americans. Results from 1998-2000 are based on interviews with 7,184 Americans. Both have a margin of error of plus or minus 1 percentage point.(This story has been updated.) By: Aysha Khan ayshabkhan DIY Faith • News Dinner church movement sets the table for food, faith and friendships August 29, 2019 By: Aysha Khan ayshabkhan Share This! By: Aysha Khan ayshabkhan By: Bob Smietana @bobsmietana Cancel replyYou must be logged in to post a comment.,Emperor performs ritual to report abdication to Shinto gods Buttigieg walks fine line in courting religious left August 29, 2019 Aysha Khan ayshabkhan Pete Buttigieg: Religious left is ‘stirring’ August 29, 2019 Share This! Share This! News About the authorView All Posts How a controversial Muslim figure helped ignite the controversy over Rep. Ilhan Omar� … Facebook Twitter Pinterest LinkedIn ReddIt Email By: Bob Smietana @bobsmietana Facebook Twitter Pinterest LinkedIn ReddIt Email,About the authorView All Posts Bob Smietana Bob Smietana is a veteran religion writer and editor-in-chief of Religion News Service. By: Bob Smietana @bobsmietana Aysha Khan Aysha Khan is a Boston-based journalist reporting on American Muslims and millennial faith for RNS. Her newsletter, Creeping Sharia, curates news coverage of Muslim communities in the U.S. Previously, she was the social media editor at RNS.,Add Comment Click here to post a comment Facebook Twitter Pinterest LinkedIn ReddIt Email Facebook Twitter Pinterest LinkedIn ReddIt Email Share This! Bob Smietana @bobsmietana
A sample of large subway networks in large urban areas, all displaying a core and branches structure. Fromleft to right and top to bottom: Shanghai, Madrid, Moscow, Tokyo, Seoul, Barcelona (Figures from Wikimedia Commons) Journal information: Journal of the Royal Society Interface Subway dust may trigger lung damage This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. The team focused on the fourteen largest cities and their subway systems and found that mathematical equations could describe some of their attributes regardless of how long the subway systems have been in existence. They found for example, that about half of all the stations in any large subway system can be found on the outer branches rather than clustered around the core. They also found that the distance from the center of the city to its farthest station is just about double the diameter of the system’s core; again, regardless of system. And that’s not all. They also found that the number of branches in a subway system is roughly equal to the square root of the number of stations and that twenty percent of stations situated in the core link two or more lines together allowing people to transfer from one to the other.The researchers point out that none of this is planned, at least not in systematic way. City planners, they say, start out with a design that seems optimal for existing conditions then expand when needed. Thus, the systems grow organically in ways that reflect rider needs, which the researchers suggest means that there is likely some underlying fundamental rules that govern ridership and decision-making that is common to all subway systems, regardless of country, geography, climate or density, which results, they say, in a common optimal design.If the underlying rules can be described, the thinking goes, then future planners would be able to skip the intermediate steps that lead to the optimal design, likely saving hundreds of millions of dollars in the process, or perhaps better yet, small adjustments might be made to further optimize the general model which could benefit all such systems throughout the world. Citation: Study shows subway systems develop in remarkably similar ways (2012, May 22) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2012-05-subway-remarkably-similar-ways.html Explore further © 2012 Phys.Org More information: A long-time limit for world subway networks, J. R. Soc. Interface, Published online before print May 16, 2012, doi: 10.1098/rsif.2012.0259 (arXiv pre-print arxiv.org/abs/1105.5294 )AbstractWe study the temporal evolution of the structure of the world’s largest subway networks in an exploratory manner. We show that, remarkably, all these networks converge to a shape that shares similar generic features despite their geographical and economic differences. This limiting shape is made of a core with branches radiating from it. For most of these networks, the average degree of a node (station) within the core has a value of order 2.5 and the proportion of k = 2 nodes in the core is larger than 60 per cent. The number of branches scales roughly as the square root of the number of stations, the current proportion of branches represents about half of the total number of stations, and the average diameter of branches is about twice the average radial extension of the core. Spatial measures such as the number of stations at a given distance to the barycentre display a first regime which grows as r2 followed by another regime with different exponents, and eventually saturates. These results—difficult to interpret in the framework of fractal geometry—confirm and yield a natural explanation in the geometric picture of this core and their branches: the first regime corresponds to a uniform core, while the second regime is controlled by the interstation spacing on branches. The apparent convergence towards a unique network shape in the temporal limit suggests the existence of dominant, universal mechanisms governing the evolution of these structures. (Phys.org) — Visitors to major cities in the world might disagree, but a small group of French and British researchers has found that regardless of city density, structure and other factors, subway systems running in the biggest cites in the world are more alike than not in truly fundamental ways. In their paper published in the Journal of the Royal Society Interface, the team says that all of the large city subway systems in the world grow in a way that share common features – such as the fact that they all have central cores with a branch topology.
More information: Robert M. Yarrington et al. Nucleosomes inhibit target cleavage by CRISPR-Cas9 in vivo, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (2018). DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1810062115AbstractGenome editing with CRISPR-Cas nucleases has been applied successfully to a wide range of cells and organisms. There is, however, considerable variation in the efficiency of cleavage and outcomes at different genomic targets, even within the same cell type. Some of this variability is likely due to the inherent quality of the interaction between the guide RNA and the target sequence, but some may also reflect the relative accessibility of the target. We investigated the influence of chromatin structure, particularly the presence or absence of nucleosomes, on cleavage by the Streptococcus pyogenes Cas9 protein. At multiple target sequences in two promoters in the yeast genome, we find that Cas9 cleavage is strongly inhibited when the DNA target is within a nucleosome. This inhibition is relieved when nucleosomes are depleted. Remarkably, the same is not true of zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs), which cleave equally well at nucleosome-occupied and nucleosome-depleted sites. These results have implications for the choice of specific targets for genome editing, both in research and in clinical and other practical applications. A team of researchers at the University of Utah has found that nucleosomes can inhibit CRISPR/Cas9 cleavage efficiency. In their paper published in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, the group describes testing the gene editing technique on yeast samples and what they found. Journal information: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences Illustration of Cas9 binding to DNA. The top figure shows two nucleosomes surrounding a nucleosome-free stretch of DNA. Hypothetical PAM sites for Cas9 targets in the central region and the right-hand nucleosome are shown in red. The lower figure shows Cas9 (with sgRNA) bound to the central target, with the PAM and flanking DNA held deep in the protein cleft. The PAM in the nucleosome could not be accessed without dissociating the DNA from the histone core. DNA backbones are blue; the RNA backbone is teal; DNA and RNA bases are white, except for the PAM; histones are green; Cas9 is purple. Credit: Janet Iwasa (University of Utah, Salt Lake City). Citation: Researchers show that nucleosomes can inhibit CRISPR-Cas9 cleavage efficiency (2018, September 11) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2018-09-nucleosomes-inhibit-crispr-cas9-cleavage-efficiency.html © 2018 Phys.org The gene editing technique CRISPR-Cas 9 uses guide RNA to find and snip out segments of DNA—but what happens when the targeted segment is part of a nucleosome? Prior research has suggested that in such instances, it is likely that cleavage efficiency would suffer. In this new effort, the researchers have carried out an in vivo test of such instances and found that prior research results were correct—using CRISPR-Cas 9 on nucleosomes may not work very well.DNA strands are tiny, but really long—approximately six feet long if stretched out. Because of that, cells have mechanisms for packing DNA into a cell nucleus. That mechanism involves rolling the strands into bunches around a given protein. Such rolled bunches are known as nucleosomes. Logic suggests that a technique for editing a strand of DNA might encounter difficulty because of accessibility issues. Other researchers have considered the possibility of such problems, but have studied them in test tubes or did their work on known strands that were not part of nucleosomes. In this new effort, the researchers sought to find out once and for all if CRISPR-Cas9 would work just as well editing strands that are part of nucleosomes in living tissue as it does on strands that are not.The work involved CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing using different guide RNAs in living yeast, which allowed for editing different targets. Some of the targets were in nucleosomes while others were not. The researchers report that cleavage efficiency was much lower in nucleosomes than in non-nucleosome areas. But they also found something else—when testing the gene editing technique called zinc fingers the same way, they found no such difference. The group suggests that in the future, gene editing efforts should start with nucleosome position maps to improve efficiency. Explore further Two unrelated studies result in discovery of CRISPR-Cas12a inhibitors This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.