If the latest salvo in a long-standing Darwin debate hits, then the idea of evolution growing more complex with time suffers a big blow.Sponges or Comb Jellies?Sponges look simpler than other Cambrian animals. Thinking Darwinly, evolutionists would expect they were the earliest animals. Perhaps sponges sparked the Cambrian explosion, resulting in all those starfish, worms, and corals that burst on the scene, they imagine. That Darwinian thought may be under attack itself, says Live Science, when Laura Geggel asks, what animal represents the oldest branch on Darwin’s tree?The sponge has long been a crowd favorite because its body is extremely simple when compared with other animals. But a new, detailed genetic analysis revealed that the delicate predator the comb jelly (a ctenophore) evolved first, the researchers in the new study said.Vanderbilt University pipes in: “Forget sponges: the earliest animals were marine jellies,” reports David Salisbury.Now, a team of evolutionary biologists from Vanderbilt University and the University of Wisconsin-Madison have devised a new approach designed specifically to settle contentious phylogenetic tree-of-life issues like this. The new approach comes down squarely on the side of comb jellies.The method and its application to this and 17 other controversial phylogenetic relationships were published online April 10 by the journal Nature Ecology & Evolution.This counterattack follows close on the heels of the advance of the sponge-bobs, who last month declared in Current Biology that sponges were first. Amy Maxmen in Nature, reporting on the “Battle of the Branches” from the battlefield, says that the sponge-bobs declared sponges the winners by “using an unprecedented array of genetic data to deduce that they were the first to branch off from the animal tree of life.” Both sides seem unwilling to admit defeat.The Vanderbilt press release claims that 95% of phylogenetic cases resolve well. Looking into the uncooperative 5% with their ‘new approach,’ the genetic detectives led by Antonis Rokas came to this conclusion:In this fashion they determined that comb jellies have considerably more genes which support their “first to diverge” status in the animal lineage than do sponges.The Problem With Comb Jelly AncestorsMaxmen gives one prominent reason why evolutionists don’t want comb jellies first in line:This arrangement rattled evolutionary biologists because it upended the idea that animal complexity increased over time. It implied that nerves and other characteristics evolved independently in different lineages, and were subsequently lost in sponges. Since then, studies have supported or contradicted the rearrangement, but all have been plagued by problems.According to their paper, the Rokas team used their new approach to try to resolve other contentious phylogenetic relationships. The press release explains:Another contentious relationship the researchers addressed was whether crocodiles are more closely related to birds or turtles. They found that 74 percent of the shared genes favor the hypothesis that crocodiles and birds are sister lineages while turtles are close cousins.In the course of their study, they also discovered that in a number of contentious cases, one or two “strongly opinionated genes” among all the genes being analyzed appear to be causing the problem because the statistical methods that evolutionary biologists have been using are highly susceptible to their influence.In some cases, such as controversies regarding the origins of flowering plants and modern birds, they determined that the removal of even a single opinionated gene can flip the results of an analysis from one candidate to another. In cases like this, the researchers were forced to conclude that the available data is either inadequate to support a definitive conclusion or it indicates that the diversification occurred too rapidly to resolve.“We believe that our approach can help resolve many of these long-standing controversies and raise the game of phylogenetic reconstruction to a new level,” Rokas said.—a new level of hostility, perhaps. If relationships can flip over a single ‘strongly-opinionated gene’, all indications are that the battle will wage on. The strongly-opinionated rivals can always argue about which gene needs flipping.Notice the revealing term Rokas used: “the game of phylogenetic reconstruction.” Evolutionists are fond of using game theory to show how evolution works, so let’s follow their example. Our game theory: the rival teams of evolutionists need to continue their battleship games to avoid boredom.Games of chance never really resolve to “the truth” about something. That’s why neo-Darwinism, the incarnation of the Stuff Happens Law, provides endless fun for the gamers. Notice what one of the jelly-first evolutionists says in the Nature article: “’By chance, lineages accumulate genetic similarities not due to a shared history but due to random change,’ explains Michaël Manuel, an evolutionary biologist at the Institute of Biology Paris-Seine, and the study’s senior author.”Keep rollin’ those dice. Give them to Popeye (4/01/17); maybe he will come up with snake eyes. (Visited 111 times, 1 visits today)FacebookTwitterPinterestSave分享0
Inaugurating a new chocolate-making factory set-up by dairy giant Amul in Gujarat, Prime Minister Narendra Modi on Sunday said a cooperative like Amul is a viable economic alternative to capitalist and socialist models.The new factory opened by the PM is an expansion of an already functional confectionery unit of Amul near Anand. The Gujarat Cooperative Milk Marketing Federation is India’s largest farmers’ cooperative.Credits Sardar PatelMr. Modi credited Sardar Patel, who founded the Kheda Milk Union, for creating the model. “Sardar saheb sowed the seed for a third economic model — controlled neither by government nor capitalists. Instead, it was created with the cooperation of farmers and people and everybody was a part of it. This is one viable alternative to socialism and capitalism,” Mr. Modi said.“It fills me with pride that it is the result of a farmers’ cooperative movement of over seven decades that Amul has become an identity, inspiration and necessity in the country,” the PM said, while addressing a gathering of farmers after the inauguration.He called upon Amul to set a target for making India the third largest milk processor in the world, from its current ranking of 10th, by the time the nation completed 75 years of its existence.The new plant is a ₹533-crore premium chocolate plant. A nutritional food unit, the Anand Agriculture University Centre of Excellence in Food Processing, and a ₹20 crore Vidya Dairy ice cream plant were launched simultaneously.The PM also launched a solar cooperative society at Mujkuwa village, constructed with the help of the Anand-based National Dairy Development Board.In Kutch, the PM inaugurated a gas pipeline and LNG (liquefied natural gas) terminal set up by the Gujarat State Petroleum Corporation.
Twitter Login/Register With: Facebook LEAVE A REPLY Cancel replyLog in to leave a comment TERRENCE MANN, KAREN ZIEMBA, LOUISE PITRE AND MORE TO LEAD AHRENS & FLAHERTY’S MARIE IN SEATTLEBroadway visionaries meet ballet royalty at The 5th Avenue Theatre this spring in Marie: A New Musical. Tony Award-winning authors Lynn Ahrens and Stephen Flaherty (Ragtime, Once On This Island), five-time Tony Award-winning director and choreographer Susan Stroman (The Producers, Contact), and acclaimed New York City Ballet principal dancer Tiler Peck invite you backstage into 19th-century Paris, where glittering opulence hobnobbed with underworld dangers. Marie was formerly titled Little Dancer in a previous production that played at The Kennedy Center in 2015.Joining Peck are Tony Award-nominated actors Terrence Mann (Broadway Original Casts: Javert in Les Misérables, Beast in the Beauty and the Beast, Rum Tum Tugger in Cats) as Edgar Degas, Louise Pitre (Broadway: Mamma Mia!) as Adult Marie, Dee Hoty (Broadway: Footloose, Bye Bye Birdie) as Mary Cassat, Tony-winning actress Karen Ziemba (Broadway: Contact, Bullets Over Broadway, 42nd Street) as Martine Van Goethem, and Jenny Powers (Broadway: Grease, Little Women) as Antoinette Van Goethem. Kyle Harris (National Tour: West Side Story), who originated the role of Christian at The Kennedy Center, will also return. Christopher Gurr (Broadway: Spamalot, Tuck Everlasting, All the Way) joins the cast as Corbeil and Degas Understudy, with Noelle Hogan (Off-Broadway: The Runaways; National Tour: Fun Home) as Charlotte Van Goethem. READ MORETILER PECK, TERRENCE MANN, DEE HOTY, LOUISE PITRE, AND KAREN ZIEMBA SET FOR MARIE AT SEATTLE’S 5TH AVENUEMarie, A New Musical, from Tony winners Susan Stroman, Lynn Ahrens, and Stephen Flaherty, has announced casting for its Seattle debut, which will begin performances March 22 at the 5th Avenue Theatre. Advertisement New York City Principal Ballet Dancer Tiler Peck, who starred in the musical’s 2014 Kennedy Center engagement under the title Little Dancer, will return to the role of Marie, opposite Tony nominee Terrence Mann as Degas.The cast will also feature Louise Pitre as Adult Marie, Dee Hoty as Mary Cassat, Tony winner Karen Ziemba as Martine Van Goethem, Jenny Powers as Antoinette Van Goethem, Kyle Harris as Christian, Christopher Gurr as Corbeil and Degas Understudy, with Noelle Hogan as Charlotte Van Goethem. READ MORETILER PECK, TERRENCE MANN, KAREN ZIEMBA TO STAR IN AHRENS AND FLAHERTY’S MARIEThe show is a newly revised edition of the musical Little Dancer.Principal casting has been announced for the 5th Avenue Theatre production of Lynn Ahrens and Stephen Flaherty’s Marie: A New Musical, running March 22-April 14 in Seattle. Directed and choreographed by Susan Stroman, the show was formerly titled Little Dancer upon its 2014 premiere at the Kennedy Center, in Washington, DC.Leading the company will be Tiler Peck as Marie, returning to the role she originated in Washington. Also reprising their performances will be Karen Ziemba as Martine Van Goethem, Jenny Powers as Antoinette Van Goethem, and Kyle Harris as Christian. New to the show are Terrence Mann as Edgar Degas, Louise Pitre as Adult Marie, Dee Hoty as Mary Cassat, Christopher Gurr as Corbeil and Degas Understudy, and Noelle Hogan as Charlotte Van Goethem. READ MORE Advertisement Advertisement