5 rules for thanking donors

first_imgHere at Network for Good we experienced a busy giving season right up to the final hours of 2013. This is good news for nonprofits, as we saw a 16% increase in dollars donated compared to the year-end fundraising season of 2012. After all of that activity, it can be tempting to take it easy for a few weeks now that January is here. Of course, the reality is that your work with donors is just beginning. Now is your opportunity to begin turning year-end donors into your long-term partners in good. To do so, you need a solid plan to welcome these donors, keep them informed, and build relationships with them throughout the year. The first step is to keep the magic alive with a well-planned donor gratitude strategy. Here are some things to keep in mind:Thank your donors as soon as possible. Ideally, your online donors have already received an automatic thank you and receipt, and offline donors are receiving their thank yous in the mail shortly. Thanking donors promptly is not just common courtesy, it’s positive reinforcement of their decision to support and trust your organization.A receipt is not a thank you. Yes, you must make sure your donors get donation receipts that include information on tax deductibility. That said, if the most interesting line your response to a donor’s gift is “No goods or services were received by the donor as a result of this gift,” you’re doing it wrong. (See also: IRS rules on acknowledging contributions.)One thank you is not enough. You’ve acknowledged all of your year-end donations with a proper thank you. You’re done, right? Not so fast. One great thank you is a good start, but don’t forgo regularly thanking donors to keep them up to date on the impact of their gifts. Don’t leave donors wondering, “Whatever happened to that person/animal/cause in need?”Don’t forget other donation sources. Acknowledge every donation your organization receives, whether they come from your direct mail campaign, your online donation page, or from third-party sources such as employee giving programs, peer-to-peer fundraisers, or online giving portals. Understand all of your donation sources and tailor your notes of appreciation, where necessary. New donors coming in from a peer-to-peer campaign, for example, may need a more formal introduction to your organization than donors you’ve directly solicited.Make sure your thank you is sincere and memorable. You may have a template for your donor thank yous, but if your thank you feels like a form letter, it needs more work. Express authentic gratitude for your donors’ generosity and put them in the middle of the work you do. Use photos, quotes, and even video to help bring these stories to life for your supporters. Give donors a thank you so amazing that they can’t wait to show it off to their friends and family. Need some help with your thank you letters? Here are a few resources from our learning center: How to Treat Your Donor Like Your SuperheroKey Qualities for Amazing Thank You Letters3 Things Your Donor Thank You Should Do6 Keys to Donor RetentionAre you sending an amazing thank you this year? Have you received one? Share your examples in the comments and we’ll feature the best ones in an upcoming post!last_img read more

5 Tips for Streamlining Your Online Fundraising Tools

first_img5 Tips for Streamlining Your Online Fundraising ToolsOnline fundraising tools can make a huge difference in the amount of donations a nonprofit receives. Just being able to accept online donations has increased the reach of many nonprofit organizations, and it allows donors to give whenever they wish, by simply connecting with their smartphones, rather than having to wait until they are home with a checkbook handy.Since the majority of the population accesses the internet regularly, nonprofits are able to communicate with potential donors and share their message more frequently than ever before. Over the years, marketers and publicists have determined which formats are the most effective for brochures, postcards, posters, and other types of material used to promote organizations of all kinds. Donation software has also been developed, tested and re-designed to increase its effectiveness.Fundraising websites are like other websites in some ways, but they have some differences that should not be overlooked. Donation software, in particular, has been found to be most effective if it follows these five guidelines.Donation software should be mobile-friendly. If a potential donor is online using a mobile device and clicks your “donate now” button, but can’t navigate through the donation page on the device’s small screen, you will lose the donation. People are easily frustrated with pages that don’t work well, or are confusing, and leave the page in a matter of seconds.Limit the number of fields requiring input. When a form requires a lot of information, users are likely to leave the page without completing it. This means that even though they fully intended to make a donation when they got to the page, the fundraiser software became a hindrance, rather than a tool for helping them complete the intended action.Avoid links away from the donation page. It may seem appropriate to include a link back to your website or resources for more information on the good work that will be done with the donations you receive, but bear in mind that people are easily distracted—especially online—and interesting links that direct potential donors away from the donation page are stopping the donation process.Limit the amount of text on the page. Your website is a great place to share as much information as possible about your cause and the good work done by your organization. Your donation page should focus only on accepting online donations. A couple of sentences and an image that evokes emotion are enough to keep the donor inspired. Excess text can trigger “fine print” skepticism.Keep it simple. Complex options on a donation form make it less likely that donors will complete it. Fundraising websites should include options for recurring giving, and offer suggested donation amounts that the donor can choose with one click, but never include suggestions such as a percentage of the donor’s income, that would make them stop to think. They are much less likely to complete the form if there is more for them to do.Since 2001, Network for Good has helped over 100,000 nonprofit organizations raise more than $1 billion online. To discuss how we can help you get the most out of your fundraising efforts, contact us today or call 1-888-284-7978 x1.last_img read more

Action on HIV and Maternal Health is Needed in Sub-Saharan Africa to End Preventable Maternal Mortality and Achieve an AIDS-Free Generation

first_imgPosted on December 1, 2013November 27, 2017By: Tamil Kendall, PhD, Postdoctoral Research Fellow, Women and Health InitiativeClick to share on Facebook (Opens in new window)Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window)Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window)Click to share on Reddit (Opens in new window)Click to email this to a friend (Opens in new window)Click to print (Opens in new window)Globally, HIV and complications of childbearing are the leading causes of death among women of reproductive age. The epicenter of poor maternal health outcomes associated with HIV is sub-Saharan Africa, where 90% of pregnant women living with HIV reside. In this region, women with HIV are six to eight times more likely to die during pregnancy and the postpartum period than HIV-negative women, approximately a quarter of maternal deaths are due to HIV, and WHO estimates that maternal mortality has actually increased in eight countries with high HIV prevalence over the past 20 years. Addressing the intersections between HIV and maternal health in sub-Saharan Africa is necessary to make good on international and country commitments to end preventable maternal mortality and achieve an AIDS-free generation.Fortunately, we know what some of the problems are and how to address them:In 2012, only 49% of pregnant African women were tested for HIV—scaling-up voluntary HIV counseling and testing to reach 90% of women attending prenatal care is needed to support women to access treatment for their own health and to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV. African countries like Botswana, Mozambique, South Africa and Zambia have shown it can be done.To achieve better outcomes coverage of interventions that can radically reduce maternal and neonatal mortality, such as provision of antiretroviral therapy (ART), malaria and tuberculosis screening and treatment, and family planning must increase through better integration of HIV and Maternal-Child Health (MCH) services.Too many pregnant and postpartum women either do not begin or drop out of HIV and MCH services. HIV stigma, disrespect and abuse, gender discrimination, and financial and geographic barriers are associated with low uptake and retention in care and treatment. Social support for pregnant and postpartum women and community mobilization to promote women’s health and rights can contribute to increased demand for and delivery of high-quality, respectful HIV and MCH services.Addressing maternal morbidity and mortality among women living with HIV and improving outcomes for all pregnant and postpartum women requires health system strengthening, integration of HIV and MCH services, and transformation of the social context.Research and evaluation is needed for better policy and programs. The forthcoming Research and Evaluation Agenda for Maternal Health and HIV in sub-Saharan Africa identifies three priorities:Clinical Questions about Maternal Mortality and HIV: What is the relationship between HIV infection and rates and causes of maternal morbidity and mortality? How can increased illness and death among women with HIV be prevented? How will new treatment guidelines and increased availability of ART for women living with HIV effect maternal and neonatal health outcomes?Integrating Health Service Delivery to Address Maternal Health and HIV: What are the most effective models for integrating HIV testing, treatment and care with antenatal, intrapartum, postpartum and family planning services? How can additional critical interventions—specifically screening and treatment for malaria and tuberculosis, postpartum family planning, and preconception counseling—be integrated into the continuum of HIV and MCH services while maintaining quality? What levels of staffing and mix of skills are needed to safely and effectively deliver integrated services?  How does service integration effect coverage, quality, retention and satisfaction of users and providers, and health outcomes?Transforming the Social Context to Improve Maternal Health: What are the effects of programs which reduce HIV-related stigma and discrimination, disrespect and abuse in maternity care, and violence against women on uptake and retention in HIV and MCH services, adherence to antiretroviral treatment, disclosure of HIV status, and postpartum depression? How does increasing social support for pregnant and postpartum women and community mobilization to promote respectful, high-quality HIV and MCH services, effect maternal health outcomes?The 2013 World AIDS Day theme “Shared Responsibility: Strengthening Results for an AIDS-Free Generation” is a call for researchers, policymakers, healthcare providers and women living with HIV and their communities to redouble efforts to improve responses to HIV and maternal and child health in sub-Saharan Africa.Read the policy brief or visit the MHTF topic page on Maternal Health, HIV and AIDS for more resources.Share this: ShareEmailPrint To learn more, read:last_img read more

Improving Quality of Care is the Most Powerful Means to End Preventable Maternal Deaths

first_img ShareEmailPrint To learn more, read: Posted on December 28, 2017January 2, 2018By: Pompy Sridhar, India Director, MSD for MothersClick to share on Facebook (Opens in new window)Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window)Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window)Click to share on Reddit (Opens in new window)Click to email this to a friend (Opens in new window)Click to print (Opens in new window)Many would assume that the 45,000 mothers dying in India every year during childbirth is a result of complications that are difficult to manage. It should be rather surprising that these deaths are mostly preventable. In fact, one of the main reasons for losing lives is often due to sub-standard and inconsistent quality of care.Our entire maternal health care community is aware of this. And yet, improving the quality of maternal health services has been a tough challenge in India, largely due to insufficient tools and incentives for providers to change.In recent years, considerable efforts to improve the quality of institutional care during the antenatal, delivery and postpartum periods have favored public health care facilities, largely excluding private ones. This has been the case despite the fact that private providers in India account for up to 30% of institutional deliveries in rural areas and up to 52.5% of institutional deliveries in urban areas, and despite evidence suggesting that quality of care is an issue in both sectors. Many such facilities, even those that have been in business for 5 to 10 years and even longer, have been found not to be following recognized, evidence-based quality standards of care in their labor and delivery wards. They do not have the necessary emergency protocols in place to prevent complications.These challenges persist due to a widespread lack of technical resources, insufficient training and other opportunities for nurses and paramedics to update their skills and knowledge (leading to continued use of outdated, ineffective and sometimes harmful practices); weak incentives for private maternity facilities to invest in quality improvement because efforts typically do not immediately translate into an increased client base; and limited capacity (if not total absence) of systems to measure and monitor the quality of their services.Greater efforts must be made to bridge the gap between research-supported knowledge and clinical practice. What we need is a large scale streamlined quality improvement initiative, offering a practical and compelling way for private health care facilities to improve their capacities for managing care during labor, delivery and the immediate postpartum period, when risks for life threatening complications are the highest.An intervention which offers all of the above is an important step forward for maternal health in India. One such example that comes to mind is a recently published white paper on the Private Sector Quality Improvement Initiative undertaken by FOGSI in partnership with Jhpiego and MSD for Mothers that offers some path breaking insights. The pilot program was implemented over a period of three years (2013–2016) in 11 large cities in the states of Jharkhand and Uttar Pradesh: Agra, Allahabad, Bokaro, Dhanbad, Giridih, Jamshedpur, Kanpur, Lucknow, Meerut, Ranchi and Varanasi. Its primary objective was to improve the quality of care provided by private maternity providers through implementation of quality standards, and strengthen the clinical competency of private maternity providers. After five rounds of assessments, 122 out of 140 participating facilities (87%) achieved a 70% score or better, compared to only 3% of facilities in the beginning.This was achieved due to regular assessments, prioritizing resources (equipment, drugs and supplies) that are essential for adherence to recommended practices; “upskilling” health workers in key areas where performance was found to be lacking; improving compliance through post-training onsite mentoring and troubleshooting support (including drills), and applying WHO-endorsed Safe Childbirth Checklist; as well as improving the use of data to drive action and increase accountability via standardized data collection tools. Professional associations such as FOGSI have played a pivotal role in bringing together and motivating community of providers to join the quality bandwagon. Such partnerships are critical.We need frameworks for assuring quality of care over time. Providers need to be regularly reassessed to make sure they are keeping up with their skills. Those who demonstrate compliance with FOGSI’s evidence-based standards specific to maternity care must receive a stamp endorsing quality. In addition, payers can ensure that they are buying quality services for their patients by making certification mandatory for participation in their insurance/health financing schemes.To drive patient demand for quality, we need tools that empower women to make informed choices about where they seek care. Consumers should have the option to choose to deliver their babies only in certified hospitals.Sustaining quality eventually requires the might of the entire health care ecosystem – the government, regulatory authorities, the private sector, civil society, development agencies and academics to ensure that the right incentives are entrenched in the system. State and national leaders can play a catalyst in forging cross-sectoral alliances and supporting quality improvement through concrete policy and regulatory action.We need accrediting bodies to recognize and adopt quality standards for maternal health and help build out complementary certification, surveillance and other quality assurance mechanisms. And we need buy-in from payers, including Janani Suraksha Yojana (JSY) and other schemes. Financing and quality assurance efforts must work in tandem to ensure that services are adequate – and affordable. This will strengthen our health care system.It’s time for all maternal health stakeholders in this country to hold ourselves and others accountable for delivering – and demanding – the kind of care every woman deserves during one of the most important, and potentially perilous, moments in her life. A “world where no woman dies giving life” from preventable causes is indeed possible. Show every mother in India that #SheMatters.This post originally appeared on ET Healthworld.Share this:last_img read more

BC judge approves Victorias plastic bag bylaw going into effect in July

first_imgVICTORIA – The mayor of Victoria is hailing a court victory allowing the city to enact a bylaw that will prohibit grocery stores from offering or selling plastic bags to shoppers.Lisa Helps says in a news release that the B.C. Supreme Court decision represents an important step in moving away from unsustainable business practices that create high volumes of waste from single-use plastic bags.The Canadian Plastic Bag Association challenged the bylaw, saying it amounts to an environmental regulation that the city does not have the power to enact without provincial approval.Justice Nathan Smith says the bylaw is characterized as a business regulation and even though some councillors may have been motivated by broad concerns for the environment, they were considering ways in which discarded plastic bags impact municipal facilities and services.The bylaw that goes into effect in July calls on businesses to charge customers 15 cents for a paper bag and $1 for a reusable bag, but small paper bags used for items such as bulk foods, meat, bakery goods and plants would still be free.Fees will increase in July 2019 to 25 cents for a paper bag and $2 for a reusable bag.Note to readers: This is a corrected story. A previous version said the fees increase in January 2019.last_img read more

Regina committee shuns living wage mayor says city already good employer

first_imgREGINA – The City of Regina’s executive committee has voted against paying a mandatory base wage of $16.95 per hour to all civic employees and anyone contracted for work by the city.Wednesday’s vote came after a report from city administrators that recommended against bringing in a so-called living wage for hourly employees.The report says it would cost the city about $1.1 million to make the change, which would have to be covered by a property tax increase of 0.5 per cent.The living wage for Regina — as determined by the Canadian Centre for Policy Alternatives in 2016 — is for a family of two working parents with two children.Currently, all of Regina’s permanent employees make more than the living wage, but 379 casual employees who work 300 hours per year or less earn below that level, although they make more than the provincial minimum wage of $11.06.Mayor Michael Fougere says the city is a good employer and is not paying its workers the bare minimum.“Every salary is above minimum wage here … our employees are well-paid,” he said.Coun. Andrew Stevens, the only executive committee member who spoke in favour of the proposed change, said he didn’t see enough in the report about the positive social and community benefits of a living wage.He pointed to six other municipalities across Canada that have adopted such a policy, with New Westminster, British Columbia being the first in 2011.“This notion that we shouldn’t be, or we can’t, or maybe this is beyond our jurisdiction … that’s patently false,” said Stevens.Peter Gilmer with the Regina Anti-Poverty Ministry argued that the proposal would help reduce the wage gap between women and men, boost spending in the local economy and create a ripple effect, inspiring other employers to follow suit.Marilyn Braun-Pollon with the Canadian Federation of Independent Business said a survey of members on the idea showed 74 per cent of small business owners oppose it.She said the majority already pay well above minimum wage, noting that there’s a misconception that a living wage will create jobs.“The best social policy is a job,” said Braun-Pollon, arguing that there’s a need for entry-level positions, mostly held by 15 to 24-year-olds.The living wage proposal will face a final vote at city council’s next meeting later this month. (CJME, CTV Regina)last_img read more

In era of news deserts no easy fix for local news struggles

first_imgNEW YORK — The local news industry hasn’t been the subject of much good news itself lately.Newspaper circulation is down sharply, and so is employment in the newspaper industry. Financial cutbacks have led to the shutdown of nearly 1,800 daily and weekly newspapers since 2004, and given rise to new terminology to describe what’s left in their wake. “News deserts” describes parts of the country no longer covered by daily journalists, while “ghost newspapers” is a term for publications with much more limited circulation and ambition.Facebook’s $300 million donation Tuesday to fund local news initiatives helped put the problem in focus. So did the ownership bid for the Gannett company, publisher of USA Today and several daily newspapers, by a company known for making sharp financial cutbacks.David Bauder, The Associated Presslast_img read more

Tata Tele in ATC talks to sell tower biz stake for Rs

first_imgNew Delhi: Tata Teleservices is in talks with American Tower Corporation to sell its entire stake in the mobile tower business for about Rs 2,500 crore at a price of Rs 212 per share. “Tata Teleservices sold half of its stake to American Tower Corporation (ATC) in October 2018. It is option to sell the rest of the stake it holds along with Tata Sons in this fiscal. The process for sale has started for valuation of around Rs 2,500 crore at Rs 212 per share,” a source, who did not wish to be identified, told PTI. Also Read – Thermal coal import may surpass 200 MT this fiscalNo immediate reply was received from ATC and Tata Teleservices on an e-mail query sent to them in this regard. Tata Teleservices sold half of its 26 per cent stake and IDFC its entire stake in mobile tower company ATC TIPL to majority shareholder American Tower Corporation (ATC) for Rs 2,940 crore. In October 2015, ATC bought a 51 per cent stake in Viom from Tata Teleservices Ltd and SREI Infrastructure Finance for Rs 7,635 crore. After acquiring majority stake, ATC named the firm as ATC Telecom Infrastructure Pvt Ltd. Also Read – Food grain output seen at 140.57 mt in current fiscal on monsoon boostATC TIPL is the second-largest private telecom tower firm in India with a portfolio of around 78,000 mobile towers. Tata Teleservices’ stake in Viom Networks came down to 26 per cent after ATC acquired a majority stake in the company and merged its existing India business and further reduced to 13 per cent after stake sale in October 2018. ATC’s stake in ATC TIPL is likely to reach around 90 per cent if the Tata Teleservices exits the business after selling entire stake.last_img read more

Football Dwayne Haskins breaks Ohio State singleseason passing yards record

Ohio State redshirt sophomore quarterback Dwayne Haskins (7) looks to throw a pass in the first quarter of the game against Maryland on Nov. 17. Credit: Casey Cascaldo | Photo EditorCOLLEGE Park, Md. — Ohio State redshirt sophomore quarterback Dwayne Haskins broke former Ohio State quarterback Joe Germaine’s record for most passing yards in a single season in school history in the second quarter against Maryland on Saturday. Haskins completed a 68-yard touchdown pass to redshirt senior Terry McLaurin to break the record set by Germaine in 1998 with 3,330 passing yards. The redshirt sophomore quarterback also set the record for single-game passing yards against Purdue on Oct. 20, throwing for 470 passing yards against the Boilermakers. He is also only one of two quarterbacks in Ohio State history, along with quarterback Art Schlichter, to throw for more than 400 yards in a single game. Haskins also broke the record for most completions (49) and pass attempts (73) in Ohio State’s loss to the Boilermakers. Haskins also tied former Ohio State quarterbacks J.T. Barrett and Kenny Guiton throwing the most touchdowns in a single game with six against Indiana on Oct. 6. Haskins has the opportunity to break Barrett’s record for most passing touchdowns in a single season. The redshirt sophomore quarterback needs two more touchdown passes to pass Barrett’s 35. read more

Mascherano pities those who criticize Messi

first_imgThe Argentinean superstar has always been criticized for his work in the national team since is not the same as the work he does for Barcelona.Football superstar Lionel Messi has always been criticized for his work in the Argentina national team since it’s not the same as the job he does for Spanish La Liga giants Barcelona.And now teammate and former Argentina captain Javier Mascherano has spoken on why he pities those who criticize the Blaugrana footballer.“When Messi is not [with the national team] it’s a problem and when he returns, it is as well,” Mascherano was quoted by Spanish media outlet Marca.“He always behaved as a leader and you can go and ask the people who work at the Argentine FA (AFA) if we did things for the national team or not.”“Messi has endured everything for ten years and the criticism of him is not about his football,” he added.Top 5 players who can actually replace Messi and Ronaldo Tomás Pavel Ibarra Meda – September 13, 2019 After Pep Guardiola’s latest defense of Messi and Ronaldo, we need to start talking about the Top 5 players who can replace them.Replacing Messi and…“The criticism comes from the yellow press, as we live in a country where it seems that if you don’t win something, you do not love the national team.”“I see the team doing really well, very strong,” former Messi teammate Sergi Samper added.“I always say that Messi is on another level.”“For me, he is the best player in history,” he concluded.Messi is back to the Argentina national team, after missing the second part of 2018 as he decided not to defend his country’s colours after the 2018 FIFA World Cup fiasco in Russia.He played for Argentina for the first time since the summer of 2018 in the 3-1 defeat against Venezuela, but he was injured for the match against Morocco some days later.last_img read more

Study shows subway systems develop in remarkably similar ways

first_imgA sample of large subway networks in large urban areas, all displaying a core and branches structure. Fromleft to right and top to bottom: Shanghai, Madrid, Moscow, Tokyo, Seoul, Barcelona (Figures from Wikimedia Commons) Journal information: Journal of the Royal Society Interface Subway dust may trigger lung damage This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. The team focused on the fourteen largest cities and their subway systems and found that mathematical equations could describe some of their attributes regardless of how long the subway systems have been in existence. They found for example, that about half of all the stations in any large subway system can be found on the outer branches rather than clustered around the core. They also found that the distance from the center of the city to its farthest station is just about double the diameter of the system’s core; again, regardless of system. And that’s not all. They also found that the number of branches in a subway system is roughly equal to the square root of the number of stations and that twenty percent of stations situated in the core link two or more lines together allowing people to transfer from one to the other.The researchers point out that none of this is planned, at least not in systematic way. City planners, they say, start out with a design that seems optimal for existing conditions then expand when needed. Thus, the systems grow organically in ways that reflect rider needs, which the researchers suggest means that there is likely some underlying fundamental rules that govern ridership and decision-making that is common to all subway systems, regardless of country, geography, climate or density, which results, they say, in a common optimal design.If the underlying rules can be described, the thinking goes, then future planners would be able to skip the intermediate steps that lead to the optimal design, likely saving hundreds of millions of dollars in the process, or perhaps better yet, small adjustments might be made to further optimize the general model which could benefit all such systems throughout the world. Citation: Study shows subway systems develop in remarkably similar ways (2012, May 22) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2012-05-subway-remarkably-similar-ways.htmlcenter_img Explore further © 2012 Phys.Org More information: A long-time limit for world subway networks, J. R. Soc. Interface, Published online before print May 16, 2012, doi: 10.1098/​rsif.2012.0259 (arXiv pre-print arxiv.org/abs/1105.5294 )AbstractWe study the temporal evolution of the structure of the world’s largest subway networks in an exploratory manner. We show that, remarkably, all these networks converge to a shape that shares similar generic features despite their geographical and economic differences. This limiting shape is made of a core with branches radiating from it. For most of these networks, the average degree of a node (station) within the core has a value of order 2.5 and the proportion of k = 2 nodes in the core is larger than 60 per cent. The number of branches scales roughly as the square root of the number of stations, the current proportion of branches represents about half of the total number of stations, and the average diameter of branches is about twice the average radial extension of the core. Spatial measures such as the number of stations at a given distance to the barycentre display a first regime which grows as r2 followed by another regime with different exponents, and eventually saturates. These results—difficult to interpret in the framework of fractal geometry—confirm and yield a natural explanation in the geometric picture of this core and their branches: the first regime corresponds to a uniform core, while the second regime is controlled by the interstation spacing on branches. The apparent convergence towards a unique network shape in the temporal limit suggests the existence of dominant, universal mechanisms governing the evolution of these structures. (Phys.org) — Visitors to major cities in the world might disagree, but a small group of French and British researchers has found that regardless of city density, structure and other factors, subway systems running in the biggest cites in the world are more alike than not in truly fundamental ways. In their paper published in the Journal of the Royal Society Interface, the team says that all of the large city subway systems in the world grow in a way that share common features – such as the fact that they all have central cores with a branch topology.last_img read more