Explore further © 2012 Phys.Org More information: A long-time limit for world subway networks, J. R. Soc. Interface, Published online before print May 16, 2012, doi: 10.1098/rsif.2012.0259 (arXiv pre-print arxiv.org/abs/1105.5294 )AbstractWe study the temporal evolution of the structure of the world’s largest subway networks in an exploratory manner. We show that, remarkably, all these networks converge to a shape that shares similar generic features despite their geographical and economic differences. This limiting shape is made of a core with branches radiating from it. For most of these networks, the average degree of a node (station) within the core has a value of order 2.5 and the proportion of k = 2 nodes in the core is larger than 60 per cent. The number of branches scales roughly as the square root of the number of stations, the current proportion of branches represents about half of the total number of stations, and the average diameter of branches is about twice the average radial extension of the core. Spatial measures such as the number of stations at a given distance to the barycentre display a first regime which grows as r2 followed by another regime with different exponents, and eventually saturates. These results—difficult to interpret in the framework of fractal geometry—confirm and yield a natural explanation in the geometric picture of this core and their branches: the first regime corresponds to a uniform core, while the second regime is controlled by the interstation spacing on branches. The apparent convergence towards a unique network shape in the temporal limit suggests the existence of dominant, universal mechanisms governing the evolution of these structures. (Phys.org) — Visitors to major cities in the world might disagree, but a small group of French and British researchers has found that regardless of city density, structure and other factors, subway systems running in the biggest cites in the world are more alike than not in truly fundamental ways. In their paper published in the Journal of the Royal Society Interface, the team says that all of the large city subway systems in the world grow in a way that share common features – such as the fact that they all have central cores with a branch topology.
More information: liquiglide.com/ © 2015 Phys.org Citation: LiquiGlide poised to market superhydrophobic coating for wide range of products (2015, March 25) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2015-03-liquiglide-poised-superhydrophobic-coating-wide.html (Phys.org)—Newly created company LiquiGlide has announced that they have landed a contract with Elmer’s glue to provide a superhydrophobic coating for glue bottles, allowing consumers to more easily access all of the product inside. The product by the same name comes with different ingredients depending on the application, but the end result is the same, liquid materials inside slide against the coating allowing for easy removal. Explore further This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Poison dart frog inspires new way to de-ice planes LiquiGlide is the brainchild of Kripa Varanasi, a professor at MIT, he has told the press that the idea came from his wife who was having difficulty getting all of the honey out of a bottle. Varanasi claims he came up with a solution over a single weekend—a coating that sits between a porous surface and a liquid. The coating is sprayed onto a surface (such as inside a honey jar) and because it is liquid based, it fills the tiny valleys that exist on a porous surface and is kept in place by the hills. The coating depth is just enough to prevent the liquid from touching the surface underneath, thus the liquid moves in response to gravity with little to no friction or binding forces holding it back—the result, honey, mayonnaise, Elmer’s Glue and other Bingham plastics that slide out of their containers leaving no bits behind on the walls, base or nozzle. Each type of coating is customized to match the material that is to be coated and to interact properly with the liquid—natural ingredients, for example, are used in treating containers used to hold food products.The deal with Elmer’s and another unnamed company in Australia that wants to use the coating to prevent paint from sticking to paint can lids, likely means that LiquiGlide is poised to become a presence in the marketplace. As consumers become aware of its existence, they will likely demand it be offered in a wide variety of applications such as lotions, toothpaste, condiments and virtually every other product where some material is always left behind in the container, leaving customers feeling cheated.Varanasi suggests the product will have other commercial uses as well, in oil pipelines for example, or perhaps on airplane wings. He claims the application of his product would cut down on pumping and maintenance costs and help protect the environment as well, as it would replace many of the toxic solvents now in use.
(A) Pair of oviraptorid Heyuannia eggs (NMNS CYN-2004-DINO-05) from the Chinese province of Jiangxi before sampling. Porosity measurements and calculations of water vapor conductance are based on these eggs. Pieces of eggshell from each of the four zones depicted in (B) were used in porosity measurements. (B) Egg model separated into four zones used for zonal porosity measurements. Credit: PeerJ (2017). DOI: 10.7717/peerj.3706 This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. (Phys.org)—A team of researchers from Germany and the U.S. has found that a non-avian dinosaur living in what is now China laid colored eggs. In their paper published on the peer-reviewed site PeerJ, the team describes their study of the egg fossils and what their findings suggest about the evolution of colored eggs in modern birds. More information: Jasmina Wiemann et al. Dinosaur origin of egg color: oviraptors laid blue-green eggs, PeerJ (2017). DOI: 10.7717/peerj.3706AbstractProtoporphyrin (PP) and biliverdin (BV) give rise to the enormous diversity in avian egg coloration. Egg color serves several ecological purposes, including post-mating signaling and camouflage. Egg camouflage represents a major character of open-nesting birds which accomplish protection of their unhatched offspring against visually oriented predators by cryptic egg coloration. Cryptic coloration evolved to match the predominant shades of color found in the nesting environment. Such a selection pressure for the evolution of colored or cryptic eggs should be present in all open nesting birds and relatives. Many birds are open-nesting, but protect their eggs by continuous brooding, and thus exhibit no or minimal eggshell pigmentation. Their closest extant relatives, crocodiles, protect their eggs by burial and have unpigmented eggs. This phylogenetic pattern led to the assumption that colored eggs evolved within crown birds. The mosaic evolution of supposedly avian traits in non-avian theropod dinosaurs, however, such as the supposed evolution of partially open nesting behavior in oviraptorids, argues against this long-established theory. Using a double-checking liquid chromatography ESI-Q-TOF mass spectrometry routine, we traced the origin of colored eggs to their non-avian dinosaur ancestors by providing the first record of the avian eggshell pigments protoporphyrin and biliverdin in the eggshells of Late Cretaceous oviraptorid dinosaurs. The eggshell parataxon Macroolithus yaotunensis can be assigned to the oviraptor Heyuannia huangi based on exceptionally preserved, late developmental stage embryo remains. The analyzed eggshells are from three Late Cretaceous fluvial deposits ranging from eastern to southernmost China. Reevaluation of these taphonomic settings, and a consideration of patterns in the porosity of completely preserved eggs support an at least partially open nesting behavior for oviraptorosaurs. Such a nest arrangement corresponds with our reconstruction of blue-green eggs for oviraptors. According to the sexual signaling hypothesis, the reconstructed blue-green eggs support the origin of previously hypothesized avian paternal care in oviraptorid dinosaurs. Preserved dinosaur egg color not only pushes the current limits of the vertebrate molecular and associated soft tissue fossil record, but also provides a perspective on the potential application of this unexplored paleontological resource. Citation: Non-avian dinosaur found to have laid blue eggs (2017, September 20) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2017-09-non-avian-dinosaur-laid-blue-eggs.html Explore further Journal information: PeerJ © 2017 Phys.org Tracing the evolution of bird reproduction Many modern birds lay colored eggs—some are monochrome, like blue robin’s eggs; others are multi-colored like those of the dove. But until now, it was believed that all dinosaur eggs were white because dinosaurs laid their eggs in protected nests. In this new effort, the researchers have found an example of a dinosaur that laid blue or green eggs.The team reports that theirs was the first effort to seriously study color in dinosaur eggs. It came about after the team noted some Heyuannia huangi fossilized eggs that had a bluish tint—researchers had previously assumed the tint was due to mineralization, but the new team thought maybe there was more to it. Prior research had shown that Heyuannia huangi were dinosaurs with parrot-like beaks that walked on hind legs. The team used mass spectrometry and chromatographic separation to take a closer look at the eggs and detected traces of biliverdin and protoporphyrin, pigments commonly found in modern colored bird eggs. The eggs were also dated back to the Late Cretaceous period, which ran from 100 to 66 million years ago.The oviraptor Heyuannia huangi were also feathered dinosaurs—many of their fossils have been found over the years, but until now, no one suspected that they laid colored eggs. The coloring, the team suggests, is a strong indication that the eggs were laid in open nests—the coloring would have served as camouflage. In modern birds, only those that lay them in open nests are colored. Their finding also shows that egg coloring began before the evolution of modern birds—it started with non-avian dinosaurs and was passed down to modern ancestors.The researchers report that as a result of their find, they are taking a look at other fossilized dinosaur eggs to see if perhaps some of those also were colored.
More information: Robert M. Yarrington et al. Nucleosomes inhibit target cleavage by CRISPR-Cas9 in vivo, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (2018). DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1810062115AbstractGenome editing with CRISPR-Cas nucleases has been applied successfully to a wide range of cells and organisms. There is, however, considerable variation in the efficiency of cleavage and outcomes at different genomic targets, even within the same cell type. Some of this variability is likely due to the inherent quality of the interaction between the guide RNA and the target sequence, but some may also reflect the relative accessibility of the target. We investigated the influence of chromatin structure, particularly the presence or absence of nucleosomes, on cleavage by the Streptococcus pyogenes Cas9 protein. At multiple target sequences in two promoters in the yeast genome, we find that Cas9 cleavage is strongly inhibited when the DNA target is within a nucleosome. This inhibition is relieved when nucleosomes are depleted. Remarkably, the same is not true of zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs), which cleave equally well at nucleosome-occupied and nucleosome-depleted sites. These results have implications for the choice of specific targets for genome editing, both in research and in clinical and other practical applications. A team of researchers at the University of Utah has found that nucleosomes can inhibit CRISPR/Cas9 cleavage efficiency. In their paper published in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, the group describes testing the gene editing technique on yeast samples and what they found. Journal information: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences Illustration of Cas9 binding to DNA. The top figure shows two nucleosomes surrounding a nucleosome-free stretch of DNA. Hypothetical PAM sites for Cas9 targets in the central region and the right-hand nucleosome are shown in red. The lower figure shows Cas9 (with sgRNA) bound to the central target, with the PAM and flanking DNA held deep in the protein cleft. The PAM in the nucleosome could not be accessed without dissociating the DNA from the histone core. DNA backbones are blue; the RNA backbone is teal; DNA and RNA bases are white, except for the PAM; histones are green; Cas9 is purple. Credit: Janet Iwasa (University of Utah, Salt Lake City). Citation: Researchers show that nucleosomes can inhibit CRISPR-Cas9 cleavage efficiency (2018, September 11) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2018-09-nucleosomes-inhibit-crispr-cas9-cleavage-efficiency.html © 2018 Phys.org The gene editing technique CRISPR-Cas 9 uses guide RNA to find and snip out segments of DNA—but what happens when the targeted segment is part of a nucleosome? Prior research has suggested that in such instances, it is likely that cleavage efficiency would suffer. In this new effort, the researchers have carried out an in vivo test of such instances and found that prior research results were correct—using CRISPR-Cas 9 on nucleosomes may not work very well.DNA strands are tiny, but really long—approximately six feet long if stretched out. Because of that, cells have mechanisms for packing DNA into a cell nucleus. That mechanism involves rolling the strands into bunches around a given protein. Such rolled bunches are known as nucleosomes. Logic suggests that a technique for editing a strand of DNA might encounter difficulty because of accessibility issues. Other researchers have considered the possibility of such problems, but have studied them in test tubes or did their work on known strands that were not part of nucleosomes. In this new effort, the researchers sought to find out once and for all if CRISPR-Cas9 would work just as well editing strands that are part of nucleosomes in living tissue as it does on strands that are not.The work involved CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing using different guide RNAs in living yeast, which allowed for editing different targets. Some of the targets were in nucleosomes while others were not. The researchers report that cleavage efficiency was much lower in nucleosomes than in non-nucleosome areas. But they also found something else—when testing the gene editing technique called zinc fingers the same way, they found no such difference. The group suggests that in the future, gene editing efforts should start with nucleosome position maps to improve efficiency. Explore further Two unrelated studies result in discovery of CRISPR-Cas12a inhibitors This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.
Q. Sita’s Curse opens with a masturbation scene. Meera Patel relieves herself while her angry husband bangs on the closed door. While describing the scene you have written she folded up her legs like Goddess Lakshmi seated on a half-open lotus. No fear of the Religious Right getting all worked up?As I writer, my job is to write the story I believe in. Worrying about whether an opening scene or a line or a particular character will ruffle some right-wing feathers is frankly not in my nature, nor is it integral to a creative person’s integrity. Also, we’ve been conditioned to be scared – of being branded, banished, judged, criticized and eventually rejected – family, friends, publisher, peers, Right Wing, radicals, conservatives, communists… the list is endless, as is the eventual fight. Sita’s Curse being just the beginning, in my mind – of where I want the many Meeras of our country to be. Someday. One day. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’Free from their desires. Freed by their desires. When we can write about marital rape with the same rousing sentiment as we scream hoarse about rape in the heart of a burgeoning national capital. When a housewife being paraded to a family Guruji, on the false pretext of religion can actually protest. Before the next Asaram Bapu scandal. When a married woman can say just like a single woman that she enjoys masturbating or watches porn. That she nurses a secret life. Enjoying being watched back, without it escalating into yet another feminist rhetoric. Sita’s Curse is not only about a married Gujarati housewife’s sexual destiny – it is a start. Of a sameness. Of a sanity. Of a sexual secularism. A world, sans halves. Also Read – Leslie doing new comedy special with Netflix Q. After a fairly safe debut with Faraway Music, one would have expected you to stick to plain, old goodhearted romances. But you chose to write an erotica instead. Why?Actually Sita’s Curse was the third book I penned after FM, my second being a racy lad lit, out next from Hachette, a modern day reinterpretation of Shakuntalam, as retold by Dushyant. You’ve Got The Wrong Girl. Sita’s Curse I started writing as a short story about a Gujarati housewife, I saw daily, on my way to work at the Times of India office in VT from Mahim where I lived a few years ago. Sometimes hanging clothes on a flimsy plastic wire, feeding green chillies to a tota in a cheap wrought iron cage or running her hands over her full breasts, the Meera of my imagination turned into a daily obsession – a slow fire, as I began conjecturing about her daily life. Imagining her every moment. The way she felt trapped, soulless, sad, sabotaged by the simple irony of her own life. Till the floods of July 26th, 2005 of which I too was a victim, taking three days to reach home, battling a serious viral infection I contracted, being hospitalized…later I resumed work. She was no more. Sita’s Curse is my tribute to that memory. To a life unsung. A woman with the most melancholic eyes – the color of rain. This is her story. I am but a vessel. A medium. A transit point. Q. Those who know you personally would say there was much of you in the first book. Piya Choudhury is Sreemoyee Piu Kundu. How much is this book rooted in personal history, if at all?As I said, Meera is drawn from my personal memory. And honestly, while parallels were drawn about my first female protagonist Piya and me, I feel Meera is drawn from my own flesh and blood. I gave birth to Meera. I bear her cuts. Q. Being an erotica many readers will savor the sex in it. But you have addressed important issues here as well. Long-standing social biases like considering a woman impure during her periods. Did the feminist in you pop up every time your penned down a sex scene?The biggest challenge for me as a writer was to constantly keep reminding myself of the real Meera in whose memory I penned this novel. And so, in writing the sexually graphic scenes, my attempt was to make it as real and as normal as possible for a woman of her social strata and experience – belonging to a small town, an everyday housewife, a woman who bears no children, in a soulless marriage. Also, as women our battles are all the same. I have myself seen and heard stories of women not being allowed to offer prayers or enter a kitchen/temple when they are menstruating, my own life changing after I made the transition from girlhood to womanhood at twelve. So, more than feminism, I think the erotic elements of the novel are rooted in a deep everyday Indian realism. Q. Another rarely discussed social reality, incest, is discussed early on in the book. Meera and Kartik, inseparable twins, grow up loving, caring, and feeling each other up. Do you think this may make Indian readers a tad uncomfortable? Incest is common in India, as it is elsewhere, in large joint families, for instance. But I am against branding feelings and boxing experiences into socially acceptable/non-acceptable labels and norms. So the relationship between Meera and Kartik is one that is elusive at one level and yet touches upon a very deep chord. Also, from the standpoint of the book, Meera and Kartik grow up in a small town, with hardly any window to the life and lights of a big city. In this insular life, sans much entertainment or luxuries, they are each others’ constant companions and soul-mates and it is a natural progression that from swimming naked in the village river as kids to sleeping on the same bed as scrawny teenagers, they begin viewing each other’s changing bodies and minds with a strange curiosity bordering between a platonic man-woman chemistry to the first dint of pleasure between two sexes, segregated and separated by social conditioning and conservatism. Q. Meera’s husband Mohan suffers from premature ejaculation. There is also inference to a certain godman her mother-in-law parades her to. Her first dance teacher scars her. Are all men in Sita’s Curse black? Surely, not all Indian men are so hopeless? Again, the book is not intended to start a woman vs. man debate. Who is stronger, fairer… who suffers more and why. Who always pays a price? The men you have quoted are not the only men in the novel, and as is true of anyone, each character carries strong shades of grey. Even Mohan’s character to me is a mystery – the dynamics and sexual politics of a marriage where from the first night the husband is intimidated by the sheer physicality and sexuality of his own wife. As for Guru Amarkant Maharaj – he is a prototype of the deep and complex relationship between sex and religion that is primordial to our Indian culture. Case in point. The epic Mahabharata. The dance teacher who shuns Meera is again typical of a weak man – and he could be anything, even a German or a man of French origin. Also, a character that you have skipped is Yosuf Ismail who sets Meera free. So this book is not just about the men in Meera’s life, but the life in her men. Each person teaching her something, even those that tainted her. Without them, Meera’s journey – both inwards and outwards would be incomplete. Q. Sita’s Curse has masturbation, incest, lesbian love, BDSM. Yet, I have to say it does not read vulgar. How difficult is it as a writer to tackle sex in a way that the book doesn’t become another Mastram handout?Erotica is an artform which is why it’s constant cross reference to porn is an indication of how little we as modern day readers are actually exposed to erotic writing. Before I started writing SC, I delved deep into our indigenous roots of erotica – be it Kalidasa or Jayadeva’s Geeta Govinda or the 6th century Tamil poet Andal. From Kamala Das to Ismat Chugtai. My inspiration being the innate sensuality and heightened sense of mysticism that is very much pervasive to our consciousness. I hope readers will also soak in the erotic elements of SC. Relishing it as it should be, without being squeamish or stand-offish. Being an erotic writer has led to me letting go of many of my innermost inhibitions and I hope readers also can do the same. Also, today I take pride in being a sensualist and I think it’s hugely liberating. So I was always pretty sure of the clear line between Meera and Mastram. Q. Is it embarrassing to have your parents and family elders read an erotica you have written? Or friends saying you might get branded as a porn writer? Yes and no. I have already received mails calling me a ‘whore with a disease,’ just the way I have been reached out to by many housewives and women from small towns and in urban settings, those I do not know at all, sharing with me stories of their sexual suppression, aching to find a way out. To want to stand up for their basic physical need. To speak their minds. So when I weigh the pros and cons, I know the scales are tipped in favor of Meera. Already.Q. What next? A political thriller is in the offing I hear. Right now am consumed in the promotions of SC that is a super lead from Hachette and their first erotica offering in their Indian publishing list. But yes I am hoping to start Rahula when the dust settles and I go back to my desk. As no one, but a mass of energy. Rahula is a political tragedy that is inspired by the son of Buddha and will be set against a contemporary Indian political and social milieu. But like all my other books, the story is of a man’s struggle. To be bigger than his father. To win over a shadow. And his final flight.
If you give us 100 educated mothers, then we can build a stronger nation”. The meaning of these words spoken by Vivekanand was reiterated by a special Women’s Day show called Swayamsidha to be telecast on DD National on March 14 on Doordarshan. Renowned Bollywood actor and maker of thought provoking show Satyamev jayate appeared and made some significant comments on status of women in society. Shot in Doordarshan Mumbai, and anchored by Neelam Sharma, the show originally was telecast on March 8 at 10 pm, with well known women achievers from different walks of life, who gave their views. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’The women who participated in this show were IPS Meera Chaddha, Former Election Commissioner and writer Neela Satyanarayan, actor Vikram Gokhle whose recent film Raat Van vaiche was telecast on DD Mumbai, Advocate and member ‘Beti Bachao Movement’ Varsha Deshpande, Dr. Shweta Mahapatra, Communication Chief, UNICEF, Kalpana Saroj, owner of Kamani Tubes, famous lawyer and women rights activist, Flavia Agnes and Mona Khot who is the producer of Stree Shakti telecast on DD National. Also Read – Leslie doing new comedy special with NetflixAamir started the show by focusing on not just the importance of girl child education, but also little boys who need to learn to respect women. He said, this will inculcate a healthy relationship of equality amongst the boys and girls.Many issues were touched on the show Swayamsidha, while the over arching point made was that it’s important to change the mindset, strengthening the role of women in relationships, family, society and nation at large, it is first of all important to educate and empower the girls and women. If daughters and sisters would be strong, they will become stronger mothers and mothers in law. Aamir and all the members spoke freely and concluded the show with a promise that every woman would try to empower the other men and women, and that’s how the condition of women would improve in our society.The show’s upcoming telecast is at 8 pm on DD National, on March 14.
Taking a jibe at Delhi Chief Minister Arvind Kejriwal, Delhi BJP chief Satish Upadhyay has said that he has now taking U-turn on his favourite tool ‘sting operation’.“Kejriwal has used sting operations to defame several politicians but now his team is questioning the legality of the operation,” said Satish Upadhyay. He was speaking on the recently released audio tapes of Kejriwal’s telephonic conversation. He further argued that the truth of Kejriwal who claims to be practising clean politics, transparency, nationalism and internal democracy and Lokpal, has been exposed. “It is surprising that the party and its leaders who were claiming of exposing corruption by recording and sting operations are now saying that these stings are not acceptable under law when their turn has come,” he added. He also claimed that the audio sting of talk between Kejriwal and former AAP MLA Rajesh Garg has also exposed the politics of dividing society on communal lines by AAP.
The Aam Aadmi Party (AAP) on Tuesday came out in support of the Delhi government, which has again invited Lieutenant Governor (LG) Najeeb Jung’s wrath over the appointment of six Bihar police officers in the Anti-Corruption Branch (ACB). The party leaders claimed that the ACB did not come under the Lieutenant Governor’s jurisdiction. Claiming to wage a tough war to weed out corruption from Delhi, party leaders alleged that those engaged in such malpractices were Also Read – Need to understand why law graduate’s natural choice is not legal profession: CJI
Kolkata: The state Tourism department is planning to make Kolkata suitable for MICE (Meeting, Incentive, Conference, and Events) tourism.On Thursday, at a conclave arranged by the India Convention Promotion Bureau, Atri Bhattacharya, principal secretary, state Tourism department, said the MICE tourism needs to be boosted in Bengal.He also mentioned that Bengal has potential to grow MICE tourism like it has emerged in some other states of the country. Apart from this, sources informed that a team from Tourism department will soon visit the United Kingdom to attract more people in Bengal. Also Read – Rain batters Kolkata, cripples normal lifeDuring his speech at the conclave held at Biswa Bangla Convention Center, Bhattacharya mentioned that New Town has world class facilities when it comes to tourism. He believes to attract people from various countries, the trend needs to be set and understood.He said: “We need more data to understand from the countries our guests arrive and what they do during their visit. This is very essential to plan future prospects.” He also mentioned that if the number of direct flights with some parts of world could be increased, then it would be a plus point for the tourism sector. Also Read – Speeding Jaguar crashes into Mercedes car in Kolkata, 2 pedestrians killedAccording to sources at state Tourism department, a delegation team will visit the UK during the first week of September this year.This visit is meant to attract tourists from the UK during Durga Puja in Bengal. Also, the team will discuss about the possibilities of introducing more flights to and from Kolkata.During the conclave, HIDCO chairman Debashis Sen said: “Business tourism is being looked into very seriously. We are all out in formulating strategies for making it a success.”
Kolkata: Some of the North Bengal districts may receive light to moderate rainfall in the next 24 hours, predicted the Regional Meteorological Centre at Alipore.According to the weather office, a low pressure trough has formed over Nepal and the Northern parts of Bihar, which will bring rainfall in North Bengal districts including Alipurduar, Cooch Behar, Jalpaiguri, Darjeeling and Kalimpong. There may be some rainfall in Sikkim as well. It has been said that the low pressure trough will become weak in the next four days. People in the city and other adjoining districts have been experiencing a breeze for the past few days. Also Read – Bose & Gandhi: More similar than apart, says Sugata BoseIt may be mentioned here that the temperature in the city has dropped by a few notches due to the uninterrupted flow of the northwesterly wind. Some parts of the city and its adjoining areas witnessed slight rainfall on Saturday evening. The weather office also said that the sky will remain clear on Monday but the temperature may further go down by a few notches in Kolkata and in some South Bengal districts. The temperature may slide down in the western parts of the state as well, including the districts of Bankura, Purulia and West Midnapore. The average temperature in the city is expected remain between 13-15 degree Celsius. The constant flow of the northwesterly wind will contribute to the cold situation in the state. Earlier, the Met office had predicted that the cold wave situation would continue in the state till Saraswati Puja.